|The Fundamental Counting Principle|
If an event (A) can occur a number of ways, and another event (B) can occur b number of ways, the total number of outcomes is equal to a * b.
Imagine two events:
Event A: Flip a coin. This has two outcomes - Heads and Tails.
Event B: Roll a die. This has six outcomes - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
According to the Fundamental Counting Principle, the total number of possible outcomes is equal to 2 * 6 = 12.